Inattentiveness, impulsive behavior and hyperactivity are generally common for children and teenagers. But when this type of behavior is extreme, it is called Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Such children’s behavior is different from other children of the same age.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is called ADHD.
The symptoms of the disorder consists of two part. Attention deficit and Hyperactivity.
Inattentive symptoms include: not paying close attention to tasks, missing small details, rushing through tasks, not seeming to listen when spoken to, difficulty organizing things, not finishing work, dislikes or avoids tasks that take sustained mental effort, losing thins, or being forgetful.
And Hyperactivity symptoms include:
fidgeting, make small movements, especially of the hands and feet, through nervousness or impatience, feeling like an “internal motor” is always going, leaving their seat, climbing on things, being loud, blurting out answers, Say abruptly or inadvertently, utter without thinking. talking excessively or out of turn, having trouble waiting their turn, interrupts, or intrudes on others. These symptoms must be present in multiple settings.
Patients with ADHD show disability not only in attention and focus, but also in decision making and emotional regulation. Children with ADHD can have difficulty with social interactions, can be easily frustrated, and can be impulsive. They are often labeled as “trouble makers.”
Symptoms begin at a young age but, they should be older than 6 years old but before age of 12 to make ADHD diagnosis.
These symptoms should have lasted at least six months, and interfere with daily life activities.
ADHD is important, because It can have large consequences, including social interactions, increased risky behaviors, such as drug abuse, or antisocial behavior, loss of jobs, and difficulty achieving in school and University.
ADHD must be considered within the context of what is developmentally and culturally appropriate for a person.
In adults, hyperactivity is usually replaced by inner restlessness, and adults often develop coping skills to compensate for their impairments.
The etiology of ADHD is related to a variety of factors that include both a genetic and an environmental component.
ADHD can be related to decreased dopaminergic functioning, or can be related decreased number of dopaminergic receptors in the frontal lobes of the brain. but there are no confirmed causes.
ADHD affects an estimated 4% to 12% of school-aged children worldwide.
4 to 5% of college aged students and adults have ADHD. It is diagnosed approximately twice as often in boys than in girls.
3 main types can be found: 1. Predominantly inattentive; 2. Predominantly Hyperactive.
And 3. Combination of the above
ADHD treatment includes: involve some combination of medications, counseling, and lifestyle changes.
Psychological therapies used include: psychoeducational input, behavior therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, family therapy, school-based interventions, social skills training, behavioral peer intervention and organization training.
stimulant medications are the most effective pharmaceutical treatment.
Stimulants are amphetamines and methylphenidates.
Both types of stimulants block the reuptake of dopamine at the presynaptic membranes and postsynaptic membranes.
Stimulants are the mainstay of treatment for ADHD. They are effective in about 70% of patients.
Side effects of stimulants include changes in blood pressure, decreasing appetite and sleep, and risk of dependency. However, there is an increased risk of substance use in patients with ADHD, and studies show, treating with a stimulant, decreases their overall lifetime risk of substance abuse.
Of the non-stimulant option, there are also two types: antidepressants and alpha agonists. Within the antidepressant category, atomoxetine is is the best known and works as a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. It is known to be effective in many trials as a treatment option for ADHD, though not nearly as effective as stimulants.
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Children with ADHD, ADD, or similar conditions may experience frustration with tasks such as studying.
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